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1King James IV

In the 15th century, King James IV conducted an experiment by sending a mute woman and two infants to an empty island to learn what the 'natural human language' would be. - Source


2. In medieval England, children were beaten on the 28th of December (Holy Innocents Day” or “Childermass Day) to remind them of King Herod's cruelty. - Source


3. Due to lack of sugar in their diet, the average person in the Middle Ages had teeth that were in a very good condition. - Source


4. The Cagots community were a minority in Europe during the medieval times. They were shunned, hated, and segregated from entering taverns or touching food in markets. They were not an ethnic or religious group and were indistinguishable from other people, and no one knows why they were so despised.- Source


5. During the 9th century A.D., 2 Vikings graffitied their names in the runes of Hagia Sophia. These carvings have survived since the Byzantium era, and are still viewable in modern-day Istanbul. - Source


6Mansa Musa

Mansa Musa, the ruler of the 14th century Mali Empire is one of the richest person to have ever lived (Inflation adjusted). When he made his pilgrimage to Mecca, he gave away so much gold that he completely devalued the metal in each city he passed through, disrupting economies and causing inflation in Cairo, Medina, and Mecca.- Source


7. The Black Death killed so many people in the 14th century that the world population did not recover to pre-plague levels until the 17th century. - Source


8. The Scottish army tried to take advantage of the Black Plague in England through an invasion, but caught it themselves and brought it back to Scotland, killing half of the native population. - Source


9. An influential Islamic philosophical movement (Brethren of Purity) in the 8th century Iraq declared the perfect human to be "of Persian derivation, Arabic faith, Hebrew in astuteness, a disciple of Christ in conduct, as pious as a Syrian monk, a Greek in natural sciences, an Indian in the interpretation of mysteries. - Source


10. The "L" in "could" was added intentionally in the 15th or 16th century solely to match the spellings of "would" and "should."


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11El Cid

El Cid was a military leader in the middle ages who was so feared that, after his death, his embalmed body was placed on a horse and sent into battle causing the enemy to flee. - Source


12. In medieval Europe, "barber-butchers" were barbers that practiced surgery as well, a profession ranging from amputations to haircuts. The red and white 'barber swirl' in front of most barber shops today signifies blood and bandages which were common in their trade. - Source


13. Theophrastus Phillipus Auroleus Bombastus von Hohenheim was a physician from the 15th century who said: "All things are poisonous and nothing is without poison; only the dose makes a thing not poisonous". He is regarded as the father of toxicology. - Source


14. The medieval Arab philosopher and skeptic Al-Ma'arri wrote that religion consisted of ancient fables used to exploit the popular masses. - Source


15. People of the Middle Ages widely accepted that the Earth was spherical. The notion that they thought the world was flat is actually a misconception.


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16Al-Biruni

Medieval scholar Al-Biruni, after accurately measuring earth's radius and judging by the size of Asia and Africa, predicted the existence of a landmass in the ocean between Asia And Europe, similar in size to the known continents and with similar geological features, likely inhabited by humans. - Source


17. Saladin (Egyptian Sultan), the fabled hero of the Islamic world who repelled the attacks of European invaders during the Crusades and left a monumental mark on the history of the Middle East was in fact a Kurd.- Source


18. When medieval Islamic scholar Al-Biruni was trying to determine the exact position of Qibla (the Muslim direction for prayer), he realized that a vast span of Earth's land was unaccounted for in the modern maps of the time. This turned out to be the American continent. - Source


19. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi was a Medieval Persian scholar, who put forward the basic theory of evolution 600 years before Darwin was born.- Source


20. The original word for "bear" (the animal) has been lost. Superstitious people in medieval times thought that saying the ferocious animal's name would summon it, so they used a euphemism that meant "the brown one" ("bear"). The original word was never recorded, so it remains a mystery.- Source


21Medieval English longbows

Medieval English longbows could fire an arrow more than 300 yards and required so much strength that the skeletons of medieval archers can be identified by their enlarged left arms. - Source


22. The Plague solved an overpopulation problem in 14th century Europe. In the aftermath, wages increased, rent decreased, wealth was more evenly distributed, diet improved and life expectancy increased. - Source


23. In the 10th century there lived a Syrian poet named Al-Maʿarri who was attacking and rejecting Islamic (or any other religion) claims. He could freely express his opinions in Arabic lands without fear of his life. In 2013, almost a thousand years after his death, a Jihadist group beheaded his statue.- Source


24. A 7th-century general named Khalid bin al-Waleed swallowed poison in front of his enemies to demonstrate how much of a hard-a*s he was. He instantly shrugged it off because he'd built up resistance since childhood. Seeing this his enemy immediately surrendered.- Source


25. The biggest medieval codex ever discovered is a collection of manuscripts commonly referred to as the Devil's Bible. The 'Codex Gigas' weighs about 165lbs (roughly 75kg) and is said to be a product of a desperate monk's deal with Lucifer himself. - Source

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